The structure of the tooth: anatomical subtleties are associated with the function being performed

Основная функция зубов (как у человека, так и у animals) is not a secret to anyone. This is the chopping of food (in animals, as well, capture and retention of prey). Anatomy of the teeth and their shape differ slightly depending on the function performed. There are four types: incisors, canines, premolars and molars. In humans, the first two species have a cutting function, and the latter - crushing.

tooth structure

How they are arranged

Количество зубов у человека – 32, у животных оно different (depending on the type). They are located in one row on the upper and lower jaws. The structure of the tooth on any of the jaw bones is generally the same, they all consist of similar tissues. Each of them is located in its own bone hole formed by the lower or upper jaw, called the alveolus. Anatomically in any tooth, the following departments are distinguished: crown, neck, root (one or more). Crown - this is the uppermost part, available for inspection, protruding above the gum. Sheika is a small thin section, located in the thickness of soft tissues. Correspondingly, the root is the part that goes to the depth of the hole. Its ending is called the tip of the tooth, through it the nerves and blood vessels enter the body. The structure of the tooth (whether it is a canine or molar) is excellent not only in its external form, but also in the number of roots (from 1 to 3). The shape of the incisors is flat and wide, they have a cutting edge. The canines are characterized by the sharpening of the crown, premolars and molars - a pronounced tuberous chewing surface.

anatomy of teeth
If we describe the internal structure of the tooth, thenit should be noted that the tissues in it are layered. The deepest layer - the pulp - is represented by a neuromuscular bundle. Surrounds her dentin, sometimes called a dentifrice. This is a fairly solid substance, however, it can soften when exposed to microorganisms. But explaining the structure of the tooth in its surface layer, it must be said that it is not the same for the crown and root. The first is covered with enamel (a strikingly hard substance, which contains 97% of mineral salts). The outer layer of the root consists of cement, in which, in addition to the lime salts, there is a large amount of collagen fibers. The latter are weaved into bone tissue, creating a periodontium (and thus attaching the tooth to its hole).

Comparative characteristics

structure of teeth
As already mentioned above, the teeth of a man have twobasic functions: incisors and canines - cutting, in premolars and molars - grinding. In mammalian animals, the latter two types perform a similar function. But for incisors and canines it is different. The first in predators are used to "cut off" pieces of food, fangs - for killing and retaining the victim. Anterior cutting teeth of herbivorous living things are necessary for cutting plants going into food. Fangs are often absent. If they do exist, they are only present in males. Usually they are used to fight among themselves for the female and lead in the herd (flock). The microscopic structure of the teeth, described above, is approximately similar in all mammalian species of living organisms.

Now you know about what the teeth are made of! This information in some cases can be useful!