The edges of a person. Description, functions

The thorax is bone-cartilaginousformation forming the cavity. It consists of twelve vertebrae, 12 rib pairs. In this department, there is also a sternum and the connections of all the elements. In the cavity are internal organs: esophagus, trachea, lungs, heart and others. The shape of the chest is comparable to a cone of a truncated type. The bottom is turned downwards. The transverse dimension is larger than the anteroposterior dimension. The side walls form the human ribs. The front wall is short.

human anatomy of the rib
It is formed by cartilage and sternum. The posterior wall is formed by the ribs (up to the corners) with the corresponding spine section. The longest are the side walls.

Human anatomy. Ribs

These symmetrical formations are connected in pairswith thoracic vertebrae. The human ribs include a longer bone portion and anterior, shorter, cartilaginous. In total, there are twelve pairs of plates. The upper, from I to VII, are attached to the sternum with the help of cartilaginous elements. These ribs of a person are called true. Cartilages VIII-X pairs are connected to the overlying plate. These elements are called false. XI and XII human ribs have cartilaginous short parts that end in the musculature of the abdominal wall. These plates are called hesitant.

structure of human ribs

Structure of human ribs

Each plate has a narrow, curvedsurface or edge shape. The posterior end of each human rib has a head. In the I-X pair, it connects to the bodies of two thoracic adjacent vertebrae. In this regard, from the second to the tenth plate have a comb, dividing the head into 2 parts. I, XI, XII pairs are articulated on bodies of vertebrae with full pits. The posterior end of the human rib narrows behind the head. As a result, a neck is formed. It passes into the longest section of the plate - the body. Between it and the neck is located a tubercle. On the tenth ribs, it is divided into two elevations. One of them lies below and medially, forming an articular surface, the other, respectively, higher and lateral. The latter are joined by ligaments. The tubercles of the XI and XII ribs do not have articular surfaces. In some cases, there may be no elevations themselves. The bodies of the II-XII plates include the outer and inner surfaces and edges. The shape of the ribs is somewhat twisted along the longitudinal axis and curved anteriorly at the tubercle. This section is called the angle. At the lower edge of the inner side of the body is a furrow. It contains nerves and vessels.

human ribs
At the forward end is a pit with a roughsurface. It connects to the costal cartilage. Unlike the others, the first pair has a lateral and medial edge, a lower and an upper surface. On the last indicated site there is a hillock of the staircase anterior muscle. Behind the tubercle is a furrow for the subclavian artery, and in front for the vein.

Functions

By forming the chest, the plates provideprotection of internal organs from various external influences: injuries, mechanical damage. Another important function is the creation of a framework. The thorax ensures that the internal organs are held in the necessary, optimal position, preventing the heart from moving to the side of the lungs.