Bartholinitis: treatment, causes, symptoms, diagnosis and consequences

Bartholinitis - a disease that is accompanied byinflammation of the Bartholin gland, which is located on the eve of the vagina. According to statistics, this is a common pathology, which is faced mainly by young women aged 20 to 35 years. Treatment of bartholinitis is rarely difficult, especially if the ailment was diagnosed in time.

Of course, many beautiful womensex are interested in additional information. Why does bartholinitis develop in women? Symptoms and treatment, risk factors and possible complications are important information that should not be ignored.

General information about the disease

treatment of bartholinitis

Symptoms and treatment of bartholinitis is information that many women are interested in. But to begin with it is necessary to understand the general information.

As is known, Bartholin glands representare small structures that are located in the thickness of the lower part of the large labia. The diameter of the gland does not exceed one centimeter. Their main function is the production of a thick secret, which through a small discharge duct enters the vestibule of the vagina. This secret provides moisture to the mucous membranes of the vagina.

Bartholinitis is an inflammation of the gland thatdevelops against the background of the penetration and active reproduction of pathogenic microorganisms. Inflammatory process can be the result of infection with venereal infections. For example, bartolinite often develops against the background of trichomoniasis, chlamydia, gonorrhea. In addition, the inflammation can also be nonspecific - it is associated with the activity of the opportunistic microflora, in particular E. coli, staphylococci, candida fungi, streptococci, etc.

Pathogenic microorganisms, as a rule, fall into the cavity of the Bartholin gland from the urethra or vagina. In addition, it is possible to spread the infection along with the flow of lymph and blood.

Why does ailment develop? Risk factors

Causes of Bartholinitis

Before Considering Symptoms and TreatmentBartholinitis in women should be familiar with the reasons for its occurrence. Of course, inflammation of the gland is associated with the activity of pathogenic microorganisms. However, there are some predisposing factors that increase the likelihood of developing an ailment. Their list is quite impressive:

  • failure to follow the rules of personal hygiene, especially when it comes to the period of menstruation (so the probability of infection in the duct of the gland increases significantly);
  • the presence of scratches, abrasions and other microtraumas (damage to the skin can be a gateway for infection);
  • wearing tight synthetic underweartissues (such clothing violates the outflow of secretions from the gland and injures the skin, which creates excellent conditions for the active reproduction of pathogenic microorganisms);
  • promiscuous sex life, especially ifthe time of sexual contact was not used appropriate protection (increases the likelihood of sexually transmitted infections, which also leads to an inflammation of the gland);
  • presence of foci of infection in the body -even dental caries can be potentially dangerous if a person did not consult a doctor in time (pathogenic microorganisms can get into the cavity of the Bartholin gland with blood and lymph flow)
  • weakening of the immune system (the susceptibility of the body to various kinds of infections increases);
  • malnutrition, avitaminosis, local orgeneral hypothermia of the body, constant stress - all this affects the state of immunity and increases the likelihood of the development of the inflammatory process;
  • previously postponed operative and diagnostic procedures in the pelvic area.

Of course, it is extremely important to determine what exactly led to the development of the inflammatory process. Treatment of Bartholinitis in women depends on the causes of the disease.

Clinical picture in acute inflammation

Signs of Bartholinitis

According to statistics, in most cases the inflammatory process affects only one gland (bilateral inflammation is possible, but most often it develops against the background of gonorrhea).

In the initial stages of the disease proceeds withoutany visible violations. But as the inflammation progresses, the first symptoms begin to appear. The skin around the external duct of the gland turns red, mucous membranes swell, which is accompanied by constant discomfort. On palpation in the thickness of the tissue, you can feel the solid duct of the gland.

Gradually, the duct opening closes, inresulting in a secret that accumulates inside the gland. The activity of pathogenic microorganisms leads to the formation and accumulation of purulent masses - this is how a false abscess is formed. Bartholin gland increases in size, the skin swells even more, sometimes there is an increase in body temperature.

When such violations appear, it is imperative that you go to a doctor for advice. Improper treatment of Bartholinitis at home is fraught with very dangerous complications.

Chronic Bartholinitis Form

Chronic inflammation is usuallyassociated with late treatment or lack of it. For the disease is characterized by alternation of exacerbations with rather long periods of relative well-being.

During remission, symptoms are usually absent. Only rarely do women complain of minor discomfort and the formation of mucous discharge. Perhaps the appearance of pain during intercourse.

The period of exacerbation is accompanied by edema,redness, soreness and other symptoms characteristic of the acute form of the disease. Treatment of chronic bartholinitis must necessarily be comprehensive, since the disease is poorly amenable to standard drug therapy.

Formation of an abscess: features of symptoms

As already mentioned, the accumulation of pus inside the glandsometimes leads to the formation of an abscess. This condition is accompanied by a sharp increase in body temperature (sometimes up to 40 degrees). Patients complain of weakness, nausea, drowsiness.

There is pain in the affected labia.Unpleasant sensations are constantly present, amplified during physical activity. An enlarged gland can sometimes be seen with the naked eye. The tissues around it swell, turn red, become hot to the touch. Palpation of the gland is accompanied by sharp pain. Sometimes there is an increase in lymph nodes located in the groin area.

В некоторых случаях абсцесс может вскрыться, что leads to the formation of fistulas or the spread of purulent masses to the surrounding tissue. This phenomenon is extremely dangerous, since there is a likelihood of sepsis.

List of possible complications

Complications against Bartholinitis

According to reviews, the treatment of Bartholinitis in most cases ends in complete recovery. But the probability of occurrence of complications is still not excluded. Their list is useful to study.

  • If untreated, the inflammatory processbecomes chronic. Gradually, a connective tissue capsule is formed around the focus of infection, thus forming a cyst with liquid contents. Under certain conditions, a purulent process may develop. Affected Bartholin gland increases in size, causing discomfort.
  • If there is a purulent process, then there is a possibility of formation of fistulas that can open outward (through the skin), as well as report the gland cavity with the bladder and vagina.
  • Among the possible complications include vulvitis -a disease that is accompanied by inflammation of the clitoris, the lower part of the vagina and labia. Accompanied by severe itching, discomfort, and severe swelling.
  • Possible and defeat organs excretorysystem. Patients often suffer from pyelonephritis, cystitis (inflammation of the tissues of the bladder) and urethritis (inflammation of the membranes of the urethra).
  • The list of possible complications include inflammation of the cervix (colpitis). The disease is accompanied by abdominal pain, the appearance of mucous and / or purulent vaginal secretions.
  • Without treatment, bartholinitis can be complicated.adnexitis - inflammation in this case is localized in the tissues of the ovary. Patients suffer from fever, lower back pain, vaginal discharge, and menstrual disorders. It should be noted that without appropriate therapy, colpitis, adnexitis and other diseases of the reproductive organs can lead to infertility.
  • Sometimes pus accumulated in the Bartholin gland,it penetrates the other tissues through the wall, and the infection enters the bloodstream, spreading throughout the body - this is how sepsis develops. Systemic damage to the body is accompanied by a sharp rise in temperature, a drop in blood pressure. Often, sepsis ends with the development of purulent meningitis, septic endocarditis, and the death of the patient.

Bartholinitis Medication Treatment

Drug treatment of Bartholinitis

After thorough diagnosis, the doctor will make a suitable treatment regimen. In this case, much depends on the causes and stage of development of the disease.

  • Bartholinitis treatment is effective.antibiotics, since in most cases the inflammatory process is associated with the activity of bacterial microflora. Ideally, you first need to carry out bacteriological seeding - during the study, the specialist can only determine the type of pathogen and check the effect of certain antibacterial agents on the grown culture. Unfortunately, this test takes about a week. That is why in most cases, doctors prescribe patients with broad-spectrum antibiotics. Effective drugs are such as Azithromycin, Ceftriaxone, Amoxiclav, Cefazolin, Ciprofloxacin, Erythromycin, Clarithromycin.
  • Bartholinitis treatment with Vishnevsky's ointment helpsprevent the development of an abscess and relieve inflammation. In addition, for the inflammation of the Bartholin gland, Levomekol ointment is also used. It is easy to use the medicine - you just need to apply ointment on a cotton swab, then apply it to the affected place and fix it. Some doctors recommend alternating medicines: for example, you can apply Levomekol for the night, and use Vishnevsky ointment during the daytime, or vice versa.
  • In some cases, the affected skin is recommended.process disinfectant solutions. To do this, it is better to use drugs such as "Chlorhexidine", "Chlorophyllipt" and "Miramistin", as they gently affect the tissues without causing burns and discomfort.
  • Additionally, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are used, in particular, Ibuprofen, Nurofen, Paracetamol, etc. Such drugs help to cope with fever and relieve pain.
  • With a strong pain syndrome, analgesics are used.
  • If there is a fungal infection, then it is advisable to take antifungal drugs, in particular, Fluconazole.

Bartholinitis treatment during pregnancy is carried out in the same way, but the choice of antibiotics should be taken more responsibly.

After the symptoms of exacerbation disappear (asAs a rule, this happens after 3-5 days), patients are recommended various physiotherapeutic procedures. Ozokerite, UHF-therapy, magnetic therapy, laser treatment of bartholinitis are considered effective. In addition, patients are recommended sit trays of vegetable decoctions, as well as taking vitamin complexes.

Surgical intervention

bartholinitis in women treatment

Unfortunately, in some cases it is impossible to do without surgery. The operation is shown in the case of abscess formation.

  • In acute inflammation, the doctor gently opensthe abscess removes the secretions accumulated in it, and then treats the gland cavity with hydrogen peroxide or another antiseptic (sometimes also irrigated with an antibiotic solution). Next, a drainage is established - a small tube is inserted into the gland cavity, which ensures outflow of pus. The tube is removed after 5-7 days. Of course, during this period, the patient must comply with bed rest, take anti-inflammatory and antibacterial drugs.
  • If we are talking about a chronic form of inflammation, thendrainage tube is not an option. In this case, marsupialization will be more effective. The purpose of the procedure is to create a channel through which the secret of the gland will be independently displayed on the eve of the vagina. First, a special catheter is inserted into the abscess cavity (cysts), which remains in the tissues for 4-5 weeks. Then the tube is taken out - this time is enough for a new channel to form from nearby structures.
  • If all the above manipulations did not givethe desired effect and the disease continues to progress, the doctor may decide to remove the Bartholin gland. This is a relatively difficult procedure, which is associated with the location of the gland - its upper part is adjacent to a large accumulation of venous vessels. Nevertheless, sometimes this is the only way. Rehabilitation lasts about 10 days - at this time the patient takes the right medications, attends various physiotherapy procedures.

Bartholinitis treatment at home. Reviews of traditional medicine

Bartholinitis treatment at home

You have already become familiar with the main methods of therapy.But many patients are interested in whether it is possible to treat Bartholinitis at home. Of course, using various means of traditional medicine, you can significantly speed up the healing process.

  • Compresses of aloe orKalanchoe It is necessary to soak a cotton swab or disc with fresh juice from the leaves of plants and attach to the affected tissues. Such agents have pronounced anti-inflammatory properties, can remove swelling and prevent the formation of pus.
  • For compresses sometimes use fresh cabbage leaves (white cabbage). Washed cabbage leaves need to pour boiling water, then attach to the affected place. Compress need to keep all night.
  • Daily sedentary baths will also be helpful.In the water you need to add herbal decoction. You need to mix a tablespoon of oak bark, calendula flowers and chamomile, and then pour a liter of boiling water, then hold on a water bath for 15 minutes. We strain the broth and add to the water for the sit-down bath (the procedure should last about 15-20 minutes).
  • To cope with inflammation will help lotion withdecoction of Hypericum (you need to prepare a concentrated decoction, moisten it with a cotton pad or gauze bandage, which then apply to the skin in the area of ​​the Bartholin gland).

Of course, before using such products, you should always consult with a specialist. Treatment of Bartholinitis in women at home is possible only with the permission of the doctor.

Prevention: how to prevent the development of inflammation?

Bartholinitis treatment most often passes easily and ends with full recovery. Nevertheless, it is much easier to try to prevent the development of the disease.

  • The most important is the careful observance of the rules of intimate hygiene. Need to wash every day. Doctors also recommend washing the external genitals after each act of defecation.
  • You can use a special soap for intimate hygiene with an appropriate pH level.
  • Risk factors include promiscuous sex life. If casual sexual intercourse does occur, then do not forget about condoms.
  • Naturally, it is important to maintain the immune system. Positively on the state of the body affects physical activity, hardening, proper diet.

When the first symptoms appear, you need to consult a gynecologist. Improper treatment of Bartholinitis at home can lead to the development of a host of complications.