Muscles of the back. Anatomy of the musculature of the back.

Биомеханика человеческого тела возможна только thanks to a unique anatomical structure, both the whole body as a whole, and individual systems in particular. The muscular apparatus plays a leading role in the process of motion. For example, you can bring your back muscles. Anatomy of the spinal musculature is very complex and requires detailed study by future general surgeons, neurosurgeons, traumatologists and urologists. These experts are most often faced with such a question.

Итак, какие имеют особенности мышцы спины?Anatomy of the musculature of the trunk is characterized by large muscle massifs. Muscle fibers on the back are larger, in comparison with the head or neck, because feel a stronger load on the movement and occupy a vast area on the human body. Neck muscles, whose anatomy is extremely difficult due to the large number of nerve plexuses and vital vascular bundles located in this area, smoothly pass into the musculature of the back and chest. Muscles of the back are divided into two main groups, differing from each other in the direction of the muscle fibers - superficial and deep.

It is believed that the first muscles of the back, anatomywhich are more phylogenetically related to the structure of the musculature of the limbs, are the muscles that have moved in the process of development from the upper humeral girdle. Deep spinal muscles, as is commonly believed, develop from intrauterine muscular folds, or myotomes, in this area. They preserved in a partial form a segmental structure. The principle of the distribution of deep muscles is the formation by these structures of several muscle layers. At the same time, the deeper the muscle is, the shorter it will look.

To superficial spinal musculature are the following types of muscles:

- trapezius muscle, or musculus trapezius, which starts from the skeleton of the spinous processes of the entire row of thoracic vertebrae. Its function is the movement of the shoulder blades and extension of the head.

- the widest back muscle, occupying the whole of its lower region. M.latissimus dorsi, as a rule, starts from the lower 5 thoracic vertebrae, as well as all the lumbar and sacral vertebral spinous processes, four pairs of lower ribs and both crests of the iliac bones. Function: lowering of the raised hand and rotation of the shoulder inward.

- rhomboid muscle. It lies immediately below the trapezoidal. Function m. Rhomboideus is also associated with the displacement of the scapula.

- abdominal muscle. This muscle arises from the processes of the cervical vertebrae, ending on the scapula, in its upper corner. M. levator scapulae, responding to its name, carries out the lifting of the scapula.

- posterior and inferior cog muscles. These muscles are antagonists. If the first one (meaning m. Serratus posterior superior) raises the ribs, the latter (m. Serratus anterior inferior), on the contrary, omits them.

Speaking of deep back muscles, it should be noted,that they consist of separate groups of long and short muscles that are located along the entire length of the spinal column. This is from the occipital bone of the head and up to the sacral region. The deep spinal musculature includes:

- rectifying muscle. It is located in the area of ​​the sacrum and crestsboth iliac bones, from where it originates, goes straight up and ends at the occipital bone. Its function is related to the straightening and bending of the torso, as well as its lateral inclinations. M. erector trunci has three portions, from the reduction of which the character of the movements will depend.

- transverse-awned muscle, or m.transversospinalis is a complex consisting of small and short muscle fibers. These muscles of the back, the anatomy of which at first glance seem chaotic, go in an oblique direction from the processes of the vertebrae and help in the extension of the back and trunk.

- belt muscle. It performs head turns and extension of the cervical region.

Lumbar muscles, in fact, do not belong to the proper spinal muscles. They are anatomically related to the pelvic girdle musculature.