MANPADS "Stinger": characteristics and comparison with analogues

Among modern weapons, widelyMANPADS play an important role in local conflicts. They are widely used as armies of various states, and terrorist organizations in the fight against air targets. The real standard of this type of weapon is the American MANPADS "Stinger".

pzrk stinger

History of creation and implementation

MANPADS "Stinger" was designed and manufactured inAmerican corporation General Dynamics. The beginning of work on this system of weapons dates back to 1967. In 1971, the concept of MANPADS was approved by the US Army and adopted as a prototype for further improvement under the FIM-92 index. In the following year, its commonly used name "Stinger" was adopted, which, in English translation. means "sting".

Due to technical difficulties, the first realThe missile launches from this complex took place only in mid-1975. The serial production of MANPADS "Stinger" began in 1978 with the aim of replacing the obsolete MANPADS of the FIM-43 Red Eye, manufactured since 1968.

In addition to the basic model, more than a dozen different modifications of this weapon were developed and produced.

pzrk stinger characteristics

Prevalence in the world

Как было отмечено выше, ПЗРК "Стингер" стал the successor of the MANPADS system Red Eye. Its missiles are an effective means of combating low-altitude air targets. Currently, this type of complexes are used by the United States Armed Forces and 29 other countries, they are manufactured by Raytheon Missile Systems and licensed by EADS in Germany. The Stinger weapon system provides reliable anti-aircraft defense for modern land mobile military units. Its combat effectiveness was proven in four major conflicts, in which more than 270 combat aircraft and helicopters were destroyed with its help.

tths pzrk stinger

Purpose and characteristics

The considered MANPADS are light, autonomousair defense systems that can be deployed on military platforms in any combat situation. For what purposes can MANPADS "Stinger" be used? The characteristics of missiles controlled by reprogrammable microprocessors allow using them both for starting from helicopters in air-to-air mode to combat air targets and for air-to-air defense. Immediately after the launch, the gunner can take cover freely, so as not to fall under reciprocal fire, thereby achieving its safety and combat effectiveness.

The rocket has a length of 1.52 m and a diameter of 70 mm withfour aerodynamic rudders 10 cm high (two of them are turning, and two are fixed) in the bow. It weighs 10.1 kg, while the weight of the rocket with the launcher is about 15.2 kg.

range pzrk stinger

Options of MANPADS "Stinger"

- FIM-92A: the first version.

- FIM - 92C:rocket with reprogrammable microprocessor. The effect of external interference was compensated by the addition of more powerful digital computer components. In addition, the missile software has now been reconfigured in such a way that in a short time to react quickly and effectively to new types of countermeasures (interference and false targets). Before 1991, about 20,000 units were produced for the US Army alone.

- FIM-92D: various modifications have been used in this version in order to increase immunity to interference.

- FIM-92E:a rocket with a reprogrammable Block I microprocessor. The addition of a new rollover sensor, software revision and control resulted in a significant improvement in the flight control of the rocket. In addition, the effectiveness of the defeat of small targets, such as drones, cruise missiles and light reconnaissance helicopters, has been improved. The first deliveries began in 1995. Almost the entire stock of Stinger missiles in the United States was replaced with this version.

- FIM-92F: further improvement of the E-version and version of the current production.

- FIM-92G: unspecified update for option D.

- FIM-92H: D-variant, improved to the level of the E-version.

- FIM-92I:a rocket with reprogrammable microprocessor Block II. This option was planned on the basis of version E. The improvements included an infrared homing head. In this modification, the target detection distance and the interference overcoming ability were significantly increased. In addition, changes in the design can significantly increase the range. Although the work reached the testing stage, the program was discontinued in 2002 for budgetary reasons.

- FIM-92J:in rockets with a reprogrammable Block I microprocessor, obsolete components have been updated to extend the service life by another 10 years. The warhead is also equipped with a proximity fuse to increase effectiveness against unmanned aerial vehicles.

ADSM, air defense suppression: option with additional passive radar homing head, this option can also be used against radar installations.

american pzrk stinger

Rocket launch method

The American Stinger MANPADS (FIM-92) containsrocket AIM-92, enclosed in a shock-resistant hard launch container reusable. At both ends it is closed with lids. The front of them transmits infrared and ultraviolet radiation, which is analyzed by the homing head. When starting this cover is broken by a rocket. The back cover of the container is destroyed by the gas jet from the starting accelerator. Due to the fact that the nozzles of the accelerator are inclined with respect to the axis of the rocket, it even at the exit of the launch container acquires a rotational motion. After the rocket leaves the container, four stabilizers are opened in its tail, which are angled to the body. Due to this, a torque acts about its axis in flight.

After the departure of the rocket at a distance of 8 m fromthe starter accelerator operator is separated from it and a two-stage marching engine is launched. It accelerates the rocket to a speed of 2.2M (750 m / s) and supports it throughout the entire flight.

firing range pzrk stinger

Method of pointing and undermining the rocket

We continue to consider the most famous MANPADS USA.The Stinger uses a passive infrared air finder. It does not emit radiation that can detect airplanes, but instead captures infrared energy (heat) emitted by an air target. Since the Stinger MANPADS operates in the passive homing mode, these weapons comply with the “shot and forget” principle, which does not require any instructions from the operator after the shot, unlike other missiles that need to be adjusted from the ground. This allows the Stinger operator to start hitting other targets immediately after the shot.

The high-explosive type warhead weighs 3 kg withwith a percussion type fuse and self-destruct timer. The warhead consists of an infrared target-finder sensor, a fuse section and one pound of high explosives enclosed in a pyrophoric titanium cylinder. The fuse is extremely safe and does not allow the rocket to be undermined by any type of electromagnetic radiation in combat conditions. Warheads can only be detonated in a collision with a target or as a result of self-destruction, which occurs 15 to 19 seconds after launch.

New sighting device

The latest version of MANPADS is staffedAN / PAS-18 sight. This is a durable, lightweight thermal sight, which is mounted on the launch canister, providing the ability to launch a rocket at any time of the day. The device is designed to detect aircraft and helicopters beyond the maximum range of a rocket.

The main function of the AN / PAS-18 is to increaseMANPADS effectiveness. It works in the same range of the electromagnetic spectrum as the infrared rocket finder, and detects any sources of infrared radiation that the rocket can detect. This feature also allows for auxiliary night monitoring functions. Working passively in the infrared spectrum, AN / PAS-18 allows the gunner to give target designation to shoot from MANPADS in complete darkness and in conditions of limited visibility (for example, fog, dust and smoke). Day or night, AN / PAS-18 can detect aircraft at high altitude. Under optimal conditions, the detection can be at a distance of 20 to 30 kilometers. AN / PAS-18 is the least effective in detecting low-altitude aircraft flying directly towards the operator. When the exhaust plume is obscured by the body of the aircraft, it cannot be detected as long as it is outside the zone at a distance of 8-10 kilometers from the operator. The detection range increases when the aircraft changes direction, providing a display of its own exhaust. AN / PAS-18 is ready for operation within 10 seconds after power up. It is powered by a lithium battery, which provides 6-12 hours of battery life. The AN / PAS-18 is an auxiliary night vision device and does not have the permission needed to identify aircraft.

pzrk usa stinger

Combat application

In preparation for the use of the launcha trigger mechanism is attached to the container with the help of special locks, into which the power supply unit is pre-installed. It is connected to the battery by means of a cable with a plug connector. In addition, a tank with a liquid inert gas is connected to the onboard network of the rocket through the fitting. Another useful device is the target identification unit using the friend-to-outside system (IFF). The antenna of this system, which has a very characteristic "lattice" appearance, is also attached to the trigger mechanism.

How many people do you need to startmissiles from MANPADS "Stinger"? Its characteristics allow it to be done by one operator, although officially two people are required for its maintenance. At the same time, the second room monitors the airspace. When the target is detected, the operator-shooter puts the complex on the shoulder and leads him to the target. When it is captured by the infrared finder of the rocket, the sound and vibrosignal is given, after which the operator must unload the gyro-stabilized platform by pressing the special button, which maintains a constant position relative to the ground in flight, providing control of the instantaneous position of the rocket. Then the trigger is pressed, after which the liquid inert gas to cool the infrared homing finder comes from the cylinder to the rocket board, its onboard battery is started, the tear-off power plug is rejected and the launch accelerator trigger is activated.

How far does a Stinger shoot?

Firing range of Stinger MANPADS in heightis 3500 m. The rocket searches for infrared light (heat) produced by the engine of the target aircraft and tracks the aircraft, following this source of infrared radiation. The rockets also determine the ultraviolet “shadow” of the target object and use it to isolate the target from other objects that generate heat.

The range of MANPADS "Stinger" in pursuit of the goal has a wide range for its different versions. So, for the basic version, the maximum range is 4750 m, and for the FIM-92E version it reaches up to 8 km.

TTH PZRK "Stinger"

MANPADS weight in the "to battle" position, kg15.7
Rocket launch weight, kg10.1
Rocket length, mm1500
The diameter of the rocket body, mm70
Swipe nasal stabilizers, mm91
Warhead weight2.3
Flight speed, m / s650-750

Russian MANPADS "Igla"

Of particular interest is a comparison of the characteristics of Stinger and Igla-S MANPADS adopted by the Russian army in 2001. The photo below shows the moment of the shot of Igla-S MANPADS.

pzrk stinger and needle

Both complexes have similar missile weights:at Stinger - 10, 1 kg, at "Needles-S" - 11.7, although the Russian rocket is 135 mm longer. But the case diameter of both missiles is very close: 70 and 72 mm, respectively. Both are capable of hitting targets at altitudes up to 3500 m with infrared self-guided warheads of about the same weight.

And how similar to other characteristics of MANPADS"Stinger" and "Needle"? A comparison of them demonstrates an approximate parity of possibilities, which once again proves that the level of Soviet defense development may well be raised in Russia to the best foreign weapons.