Types of bogs and their characteristics

This article will consider one of theof widespread natural formations, which is a wetland area of ​​the earth's surface with a layer of peat and peculiar vegetative forms characteristic of such localities, adapted to conditions with a lack of oxygen, with a weak flow of water and an excess of moisture.

Here, various types of bogs with their brief characteristics will be presented.

general information

There are 3 main signs of marshes:

  • Redundancy and stagnation of water.
  • The presence of a specific, typical for marshes, vegetation.
  • The process of peat formation.

Wetlands are usually called areas where the roots of plants can not reach the mineral soil.

Types of marshes


Before we find out what are the main types of bogs, we will find out how they are formed.

To form such areas, it is necessaryconstant redundancy of moisture in the soil and on its surface, as well as weak water exchange (including with groundwater). In turn, the lack of oxygen caused by excess moisture, makes air access to the ground difficult, due to which there is insufficient decomposition (or oxidation) of the remains of dying vegetation, and peat is formed. The latter is a soil substrate that has a great water cut. It consists entirely of decomposed plants. Peat differs in different degrees of decomposition. For example, the degree of decomposition of 70% means that 70% of dead plants are decomposed, and 30 - no. This type of substrate has an excellent water-retaining capacity, therefore, it has a rather high water content (about 97% of the total volume).

Types of bogs and their characteristics

According to the forms and conditions of feeding, low-lying (in a different way eutrophic), transitional (mesotrophic) and upland (oligotrophic), respectively, have a concave, flat and convex surface shape.

Под низинными (эвтрофными) подразумеваются The marshes, which are in depressions, with soil moistened by surface and groundwater, rich in mineral salts. The horse feeds mainly on precipitation from the atmosphere, which are not very rich in mineral salts. Transitional moors are an intermediate group.

According to the vegetation prevailing in the locality,distinguish forest, grass, shrub and moss types of marshes. On the microrelief - bumpy, flat, convex. The swamps are the most waterlogged areas of the marshes.

Types of bogs and their characteristics

Bolot of the Russian Federation

Types of bogs in Russia are discussed below. In the meantime, general information.

The area of ​​marshes in Russia is about 1.4million square meters. km (about 10% of the total area of ​​the country). According to rough estimates, about 3000 cubic meters are concentrated in them. m static natural water reserves.

Marshes are a complex natural complex.It consists of interconnected biotopes, which are characterized by strong moisture, the presence of a kind of moisture-loving vegetation and the accumulation of various organic residues in the form of silt or peat. In the conditions of different Russian climate, relief, and depending on the bedrock types, different types of marshes develop, each of which is characterized by features of the peat deposit, the conditions of water supply and its runoff, and vegetation characteristics.

The following types of feeding of the marshes of Russia are distinguished: lowland, upper and transitional.

Types of bogs in Russia

On the nature of nutrition

Under the characteristic of food conditions, there isthe modern surface of the swamp and the presence of that top layer of the substrate where the roots of the plants are. For each type of bog, their power sources are slightly higher.

Excess moisture is the main sign of anyswamps. It causes the emergence of specific species of animals and vegetation, as well as peculiar special humification conditions, which in a temperate climate usually lead to incomplete decay of vegetation residues and the formation of peat.

Types of feeding the marshes

Geographic distribution of bogs in the Russian Federation

Russian bogs are widespread in almostall natural zones, but mainly in the drainless, excessively moistened depressions. Their main mass is concentrated in the central regions and in the northwest of the West Siberian Plain.

The most waterlogged territories in Russia -tundra and taiga zone. Types of marshes here are very diverse. Wetlands in some areas of the tundra are 50%. About 80% of all peat bogs are concentrated in the taiga zones. In the European part of Russia the most waterlogged are the Vologda, Leningrad Oblasts and the Republic of Karelia (approximately 40%).

The taiga of Western Siberia is swamped up to 70 percent. A huge number of marshes and in the Far East, mostly in the Amur region.

Basic types of marshes

Distribution of marshes by types

Types of wetlands of Russia are territorially distributedunevenly. Mounted half of the total swamped area is occupied, and they predominate in the northern regions. Lowlands constitute less than half (about 40%) of the area of ​​all marshes. Quite insignificant areas are occupied by transitional marshes (10%).

Most of the lowland bogs feed onriver or groundwater, and they are found mostly in arid areas. And these are valleys and deltas of large rivers. Swamplands are mostly fed by atmospheric precipitation, and more often they are found in the taiga and tundra zones of Eurasia. The main part (84%) of the decoated areas is in the Asian part of Russia.

And what is the predominant type of swamp in the North? The lowland swamps of the west of Siberia occupy 42%. Most of the decayed land (about 73%) is confined to the area of ​​permafrost territories.

Vegetative cover

In lowland swamps the following plants predominate:birch fluffy, black alder, willow, pine and spruce. Of the grasses, sedge is predominant here, and reed and reed grass from grasses. Most of the mosses are green mosses.

For transitional bogs birch and pine (inSiberia - Dahurian and Siberian larch, cedar), and also willow (slightly less often than in lowland swamps). Of the grasses, the same vegetation is common here, as in lowland swamps, but not in such significant quantities. Most often here you can find alpine poochos, reed grass, sedge bottle and woolly. There is also vegetation, characteristic of the upper marshes.

Type of swamp in the North

On the swamps of the hills there are pine (in Siberiamixed with cedar) and Dahurian larch. There are no shrubs here at all, but the group of heather ones prevails in these places: kassandra, heather, ledum, blueberry and cranberry. There also abundantly grow birch dwarf and cataract (crowberry). Distributed in such places and cotton grass is a single-headed (herbaceous plant), forming large hummock-sod. It is often possible to meet cloudberries with sundew. Mosses are represented here only by sphagnum.

Thus, according to the nature of the peat and the vegetation cover, it is also possible to judge (as noted above) what the type of bogs is.

In conclusion about environmental problems

In recent years, more and moreNegative processes due to excessive, destructive exploitation of marshes. First of all, this pollution, excessive water intake from the ground and mass extraction of peat. Also, an important role in this was played by dehumidification and plowing, violation of the hydrology regime in the construction of roads, gas and oil pipelines and other structures.

Drain swamps often lead to firespeat, to land degradation and loss of biodiversity of the biological world. All work should be carried out carefully, with mandatory conservation of most of the wetlands. It is necessary to observe the rules of conservation of ecological balance in nature.