Black Sea flounder: photo and description

Black Sea fish-flounder, a photo and description of which is in this article, from the family of flounder. Outwardly strikingly different from other species of fish.


It is very useful, it contains a largeamount of nutrients, vitamins and minerals. This Black Sea flatfish has another name - Kalkan. This species is one of the largest in the family of flounder. The body of the Black Sea flounder sometimes reaches 85 centimeters, and the mass reaches up to fifteen kilograms. Kalkan can live sixteen years.


Black Sea fish flounder where?You can meet her in the Azov and Black Seas, in some parts of the Mediterranean. Sometimes the kalkan appears in the mouths of the Dniester and the Dnieper. It is often found on the coasts of the Kerch Strait and the Western Crimea. Kalkan is found near Theodosia Bay. And also near the coast of Mykolaiv and Kherson regions.


Where does the flounder live? Habitat - silty and shell-like (sandy) soils. Lives at a depth of 100 meters.A smaller subspecies resides in the Azov Sea. During the summer and winter seasons, the Kalkan prefers to stay at a depth. And in the autumn and spring - floats in shallow water. In summer, large young animals can be seen floating near the bottom in beach areas.

Black Sea flounder


Как выглядит черноморская рыба камбала?Its description is very different from other species. The Kalkan has a high elongated body, somewhat flattened, up to 80% of its own length. Sometimes it happens even more. The whole body is covered with bony tubercles. Like other brothers of this species (flounder), it is formed in the form of horizontally arranged sides, like a thick pancake.

The eyes of the Black Sea flounder are located on thetop (left) side. Fins on this side are asymmetric. Below the culcate is the white-bellied. Above, where the eyes are located, brownish, with small reddish spots. Scale does not have scales at all, but at the slightest risk, he can change the color to the color of the bottom. The jaws of this fish - with bristly-like even teeth. They are arranged in the form of bands. There are teeth even on the vomer.

Black Sea flounder Photo


The Black Sea flounder is a predatory fish. It feeds on small fishes, crustaceans and molluscs. An adult calico eats at least 150 grams of food. And prefers bottom fish and crabs:

  • sultanu;
  • hamsu;
  • sprats;
  • horse mackerel;
  • the Black Sea haddock;
  • tulk;
  • herring;
  • fry.


Most genitals of the Black Sea malesFlounders ripen in age from 5 to 8 years, and females - from 6 to 11. Reproduction occurs at a depth of 25 to 70 meters in the open sea. Favorable temperature should be from 8 to 12 degrees. Breeding begins in March-April and lasts until June. In some places until the end of July. But the spawning peak comes in May.

fish flatfish photo and description

One fish is thrown out to thirteen millioneggs. Black Sea flounder is the most prolific fish in the Black Sea. Despite the fact that the kalkan is dying from sometimes unfavorable habitats and it is often destroyed by sea predators, a huge amount of caviar is compensated for these losses in full.

Ripening eggs

Eggs are transparent and have the shape of a ball.With a small fat droplet. Caviar of the Black Sea flounder is floating, keeps close to the surface and is carried by the current. As a result, on 1 sq. M. water accounts for up to 10 eggs. Many of them die in polluted waters or are eaten by marine life. Therefore, out of half a million eggs, only 500 larvae mature.

The first four days they have yolkthe bag that they feed on. On the fifth day, the mouth begins to form. But the vision is still bad, so they move very slowly. This is a critical period, as only 25 out of 500 larvae survive.

flounder fish

After 15 or 20 days they become fry andsettle on the bottom. Approximately 6 juveniles survive by autumn. Their length is first 7 centimeters. Hibernate at a depth of 30 meters. In spring, young Kalkans move to the coastal zone. By this time, their length is already 10 centimeters, and by the autumn it reaches 16 cm. At this age, the Black Sea flounder has no enemies other than a quark shark.

The second wintering kalkan spends at a depth of 50 meters. By spring, it becomes 20 centimeters long. In four years kalkan already 35 centimeters. Some individuals begin to spawn at this age.

On the verge of extinction

Black Sea flounder, the photo of which is in thisarticle - commercial and very valuable fish. She has a very tasty fillet. Therefore, in the 1960s, a lot of fish were caught, and the numbers began to decline sharply. As a result, a ban was imposed on catching Kalkan in 1986, as it was on the verge of extinction.

fish flounder description

But the demand for this fish is huge, and the ban is notobserved. Kalkan catch nets. They are installed even in the place of migration routes when the fish spawn. Which greatly undermines the number of this valuable fish. In addition, other species, sometimes very rare, fall into the poachers' network.

Curious facts

Kalkan does not spawn annually.The age of his ichthyologists can be determined by the size of ear stones. And the number of eggs is able to tell about the area, time and efficiency of spawning. The fry of a kalkan, hiding at the bottom, digs into the ground with the help of a tail and a fin. He makes them undulating movements, and he falls asleep bottom of the soil. In the recess made it becomes completely invisible.

Black Sea flounder has different wintering sites,feeding and spawning. Spawn caviar along the coast, hiding in the depths in summer. And in the autumn it returns to the coast again. The older the individual, the deeper the fish sink. In one of the expeditions, the submariners saw a Kalkan at a depth of over 10 thousand meters.

Catching the Black Sea flounder began in the third century BC. In those days, women made necklaces from the thorns of this fish. A lot of fish were caught in ancient times.

Kalkan has no small bones.There are only large ones on the ridge. Fat is concentrated mainly in the fins area. If you need low-fat meat, the fins are simply cut. And if this fish is baked in foil or a pot, then on the contrary, the fins should be left and you can not add extra fat or oil. Fresh-frozen fish has a slightly peculiar smell. But it is easy to clean. You just need to cut off the fins and pull the skin off the carcass.

fish flounder habitat

Useful properties of Kalkan

Black Sea flounder contains many usefulsubstances and minerals for the human body. This fish is almost as good as the salmon family. The Black Sea flounder contains Omega-3 polyunsaturated acids. Kalkan contains a whole bunch of trace elements:

  • sodium;
  • potassium;
  • cobalt;
  • phosphorus;
  • iodine;
  • molybdenum;
  • chlorine;
  • sulfur;
  • calcium;
  • zinc;
  • magnesium.

As part of the fish there are a number of useful amino acids that help regulate cholesterol levels:

  • threonine;
  • glycine;
  • serine;
  • aspartic;
  • glutamine

This fish contains a large numberof vitamins. Vitamin A gives a person vitality and energizes. It also strengthens the immune system and contributes to the speedy healing of wounds. Vitamin B has a beneficial effect on the nervous system and improves brain function. Kalkan is a low-calorie fish, therefore it is ideal for diets. Vitamin C prevents inflammation and infection. And vitamin E slows down the aging of cells and improves their nutrition, strengthens blood vessels.

Thanks to these valuable components, the growth of cancer cells is prevented, the risk of obesity and diabetes is reduced.