Lake Onega: characteristics and information

On our beautiful planet there are thousands of water bodies,each of which is interesting and significant in its own way. We will tell about Onega Lake - covered with legends, famous for our famous ancestors, fascinating pristine beauty. They say that in the winter you can hear the sun rise, such a silence. But in summer, on the shore of Onega Lake, hundreds of birds are drowning in trills and twittering. Having come here, as if you find yourself in another dimension, where the tangible and visible reality is intertwined with a history that can be touched by hand.

Where Lake Onega is located

This reservoir is located in Russia, in the north-west of its European part. Approximately 80% of its area is located on the lands of Karelia, and the remaining 20% ​​is shared by the Leningrad and Vologda regions.

To the Onega Bay, belonging to the White water areasea, the shortest distance from the lake (through forests and swamps) is 147 km. In 1933 the construction of the White Sea Canal was completed with a length of 227 km. It originates from the village of Povenets, which is located on the shore of the Povenets bay of the lake, and ends near Belomorsk, a small town with a population of about 10 thousand people located in the Soroki Bay of the White Sea. Thus, an outlet from Lake Onega to the seas of the Arctic Ocean was created. The closest neighbor of the reservoir being described is Lake Ladoga. In a straight line to it 127 km. Connects Onega and Ladoga river Svir. If you move along its winding bed, you will have to overcome 224 km.

Landmarks of Lake OnegaThe cities of Petrozavodsk, Medvezhiegorsk and Kondopoga, which grew on its shores, can serve. They are located in the northern part of the reservoir. Its southern coast is inhabited little. But here passes the Onega Canal, on the way of which lies a small, but Megorskoe fish lake.

Historical facts

Studying native nature is extremely interesting.Now in the arsenal of scientists there are many new technologies, for example, isotope and radionuclide methods, spectral analysis. With their help, it was possible to establish that Lake Onega appeared on the place of the shelf sea 300–400 million years BC. er (Paleozoic, period approximately Carbon-Devon). It washed the shores of the Baltic - so called the then existing continent. In those days, many protozoa that had shells lived in the sea waters. Dying, they fell to the bottom, forming a layer of limestone. In addition, many rivers flowed into the sea, carrying with them particles of sedimentary rocks. Now a layer of limestone, sandstone and clay forms a layer about 200 meters thick in the lake. It lies on a solid foundation of granite, gneiss and diabase, resulting from volcanic activity.

mysterious petroglyphs

The origin of Lake Onega is associated withValdai glaciation. The height of the glacier then reached more than 3 km. Moving, huge white boulders easily plowed the earth, solidly changing the terrain. This is also characteristic of the Baltic Shield, on which Lake Onega is located. About 12 thousand years ago, the glacier retreated. The marks left by him were filled with water, forming large and small lakes. One of them received the name of Onego. The exact etymology of the word is unknown, there are only unconfirmed theories. On the shores of this reservoir, people began to settle, as evidenced by the numerous petrographers who have survived to our times.

Geographical characteristics

This is the second reservoir after Lake Ladoga in Europe. Its total area (with all islands) is 9,720 km2, and the coastline stretches for 1 542 km.The depth of Lake Onega is different. There are places where it reaches 127 meters, but closer to the shores and in small backwaters, it does not exceed 1.5–2 meters. Thus, the average depth of the reservoir is about 30 meters.

The famous lake does not have the rightgeometric shape. One can only say that it is somewhat stretched from the north-west to the south-east. In the northern part there is a gulf Big Onego, deeply cutting into the land. Taking it into account, the maximum length of the reservoir is 245 km, and the maximum width - 91.6 km.

depth of lake onega

Shores

Bypassing Lake Onega, you can see thatthe shores are cut by large and small bays, lips and capes. In addition to the Big Onego, there is the Small Onego, as well as the bays of Povenetsky and Zaonezhsky. Lips in the northern waters of the lake - Povenetskaya, Velikaya, Shchepiha, Konda, Petrozavodskaya, Bolshaya Lijemskaya, Unitskaya, Kondopozhskaya. In the southern area there is only one lip - Svirskaya.

The appearance of the shores is also different. In the more "wild" south of the forest are replaced by shallows, which are sandy or stony. Also in this part are many inaccessible rocks and picturesque, but dangerous swamps.

The northern shores are characterized by unusualgeological protrusions called "lamb foreheads." They are polished with a moving glacier rocks (gneiss, granites), gentle on one side and steep on the other.

The Islands

In the European part of Russia Lake Onegais not only one of the largest, but also a reservoir with a huge number of islands. There are more than 1,500 here! These areas of land, protruding above the water surface, are large and very tiny, famous all over the world and unknown to anyone, rocky and covered with dense forests.

The largest island is called Big Klymetsky. Its area is 147 km2. Natural landmark here - mountainBear, whose height is 82 meters. There are several villages on Bolshoi Klimetsky, there is a secondary school. There are no monuments of nature and history here. Communication with the mainland is carried out by ferry.

The second largest island is called Bolshoi Lelikovsky. It is about 6 times smaller than B. Klimetsky. People also live on this island, but there are no public buildings, except for a small shop.

Kizhi Island

If they ask what is the most famous island on Lake Onega, any person will immediately call Kizhi. Its area is only 5 km2, длина 5,5 км, а ширина 1,4 км.You can get around this piece of sushi in a couple of hours, but the glory of its borders does not know. Here is the eponymous museum-reserve, created on the basis of the Kizhi pogost, as well as an architectural ensemble, which is among the UNESCO World Heritage Sites. It is an ensemble of two churches (the twelve and seven heads), and the bell tower. According to legend, the church “about 12 chapters” of the Transfiguration of the Lord was built by a local craftsman without a single nail. So that no one could repeat his creation, he threw the ax into the lake.

Another island to mentioncalled Suisaari (or Suisari). It rises above the water in the Kondopoga lip. The island is currently uninhabited, but there is an old village that has the status of a historical monument. Quartz and chalcedony were found on Suisaari, agates are also found here. Most of the land is occupied by the forest, which even bears are found in. The shores of the island are very marshy. In the reeds of many bird nesting.

Rivers of Lake Onega

More than 1,000 rivers and streams carry their waters inthe reservoir described by us, and only one river flows out of it - the Svir. It is rather affluent, has a length of 224 km, connects Lake Ladoga and Onega. The width of the Svir can vary from 100 meters to 12 km. The river is navigable. A cascade of hydropower plants was built on it, the largest of which is Verkhnesvirskaya. Svir is interesting because here is the Storozhensky lighthouse (it is the second in Russia and the seventh in the world in height) and the Lower Svirsky Reserve.

About 50 rivers flowing into the Onega have a length of over 10 km. The most famous are Suna, Gimerka, Vodla, Losinka, Chebinka, Neglinka, Anga, Pyalma and others.

Climate

Weather around Lake Onegawindy, changeable. Storms on the reservoir are so frequent that in its southern part they even dug the Onega Canal to ensure a safer passage of ships to the Svir River.

Winters here in some years can be mild.temperatures not below -4 ° C, but quite often there are quite noticeable frosts up to -15 ° C, and sometimes up to -30 ° C. Winter lasts 120 days. In November-December ice cover forms in the bays and along the coast, and by mid-January it extends to the entire lake, except for the deepest places. In some years, the water here remains open all winter.

winter on Lake Onega

Strong winds can break the ice, forming cracks. Then the white boulders crawl over one another. The result is a kind of mountains with a height of several meters.

The ice is opened by May, but sometimes you can find floating ice floes in June.

The warmest and most suitable for vacation months here- July and August. The temperature of the water in shallow water can warm up to +22 ° C, but more often it reaches only +17 ° C. The temperature of the ambient air rises to +30 ° C during the day and average values ​​are around +20 ° C.

The weather in this area is not only windy, but rainy. The water balance of the lake is annually replenished by 25% due to precipitation. It rains steadily throughout the summer.

Flora

Lake Onega is extraordinarily beautiful.Its shores froze in harsh charm. They silently frame the water surface, sparkling in the sun with golden highlights. The water in the lake is so clean and clear that the bottom can be seen at a depth of 4 meters or more. Some islands and parts of the coast cover dense virgin forests of coniferous trees, but deciduous woods are also found here. Spruce, pine, fir, larch are the main higher plants that fold the Onega biome. Only occasionally glance snatches birch, alder and aspen. Bypassing the environs of Lake Onega, you can find euonymus, honeysuckle, currants in the undergrowth Blueberry and lingonberry carpets creep under your feet, cranberries can be found in the swamps, and in the second half of summer the mushroom season opens.

where is Lake Onega

On the marshy shores and shoal shoalsreed and cattail, which is very valuable for many birds. Some of the bays are decorated with lilies and water lilies, and on the banks of greenery is red ox, wintergreen, horsetails and other herbaceous plants.

Fauna

The environs of Lake Onega are full of life.Geese, ducks, swans nest in the reeds. Cranes, terns, owls, grebes, herbalists also fly here. Woodpeckers, jays, tits, and many other small pichugs live in the forests.

The animal world is also widely represented. Locals have repeatedly seen in the surrounding forests hares, squirrels, ermines, roes. They say that bears are found here, because they often find their droppings.

В водных просторах и на берегах можно наблюдать seals. They swim here for food. There are a lot of fish in Lake Onega. There are about 54 species of fish, including whitefish, smelt, grayling, pike perch, perch, eel, sabrefish, white bream, pike, bream and others.

Fishing on Lake Onega is productive at any time of the year. You can fish from the shore and from the water, which is more preferable. The depth of the bays of 40-100 meters allows the use of motorized vessels.

Settlements

The most famous and largest city grown oncoastline of Lake Onega, is the capital of Karelia (Petrozavodsk). It is called the port of the five seas, the city of labor and military glory, the historical and cultural center of the Prionezhsky region. People in this area lived another 6,000 years BC. e., as evidenced by the found numerous parking. But the city itself was founded by Peter I, who founded an arms factory here. Petrozavodsk is interesting for its historical monuments, architectural ensembles and the fact that interesting festivals are held here - “Hyperborea”, “Air”, “White Nights of Karelia”, and also sailing regatta.

Petrozavodsk city

Kondopoga is another city on the shores of Onega,located 54 km from Petrozavodsk. In historical chronicles it is mentioned since 1495. From the 18th century, marble began to be mined near it, which was used to erect the palaces of St. Petersburg. In recent years, the city authorities are actively developing tourism here. Of interest are the Assumption Church, built at the end of the XVIII century, but twice restored, two carillon bells, as well as active recreation. The city stands on the shores of Kondopoga. The depth of Lake Onega here is up to 80 meters, which allows for both amateur and industrial fishing. Its species composition in this area of ​​the lake is incredibly rich, and the bite is excellent.

Medvezhiegorsk.It is the northernmost and youngest city on Onega. Its history began in 1915 with the construction of the railway. station Bear Mountain. There are no unique sights here, but this town is an excellent starting point for exploring Onega.

On the shores of the lake there are many small towns and villages where tourists can find comfortable conditions for recreation. Among them are Pyalma, Povenets, Pindushi, Shalsky and others.

Ecology

In the northern waters of the lake ecologicalperformance is much worse than the south. This is due to the fact that about 90% of the industry and more than 80% of the population are concentrated here. Every year, thousands of tons of waste are dumped into Lake Onega, including phenols, lead, sulfur oxides, reclaimed meliorative water, and sewage.

harsh cliffs of the Onega shores

sights

Interesting places in the vicinity of Lake OnegaA few dozens. All of them can be divided into monuments of nature and history. Getting to those and others is more convenient on the water. Land routes in many areas are so broken that only an SUV can overcome them.

Visit on the lake can not only the island of Kizhi. Petroglyphs, concentrated on the eastern shore of the reservoir, are of great interest. There are more than 800 drawings.

Tourists are always taken to the Cape Devils nose. It is famous for its hooked shape, as well as the many rock paintings that adorn it.

Damn chair.This is an unusual formation in a rock near the village of Solomennoe. The height of the "seat" is 80 meters above sea level, and the height of the "back" is 113 meters. Bloody chair formed glaciers. They say if you sit on its edge and make a wish, it will surely come true.

Kivach Falls on the Suna River before the construction of the dam was more powerful, but now it is fascinating with its power and beauty. Here is the eponymous reserve.

From man-made monuments in the vicinity of OnegaThere are dozens of old wooden and already closed wooden temples. Each is interesting in its own way. We can single out the Muromsky monastery in the village of Pudozh, the Assumption Church in Kondopoga, the Marcial Waters Museum, the Church of the Great Martyr Barbara.

Recreation

Tourists come to the lake to rest as"Savage" and civilized. In the first case, there are plenty of opportunities and suitable places for camping. It is advisable to take into account that the best weather here is in August, but in the same period there is a massive production of mosquitoes and midges.

You can also stay in guest houses thatnow available in almost every coastal village. The mini-hotels will not only offer a bed, but also feed and rent a boat and fishing equipment.

Fishing on Lake Onega - the main entertainmentfor men. Guest houses are ideal for a comfortable holiday for fishermen, because guests have the opportunity to relax in a Russian bathhouse, cook a catch on a barbecue, sleep in a clean bed.

55 km from the city of Petrozavodsk is functioningsanatorium "Marcial waters", which began its work in 1719. Allergies, skin diseases, cardiovascular system, lungs, joints, bone apparatus, nervous diseases, and digestive organs are treated here. Vacationers are offered to stay in comfortable rooms with amenities, delicious food. Therapeutic and diagnostic procedures carried out by modern technologies.

fishing on Lake Onega

Legends and Myths

Lake Onega attracts many mysterious phenomena happening in its vicinity.

Local people and tourists often seewandering lights, dark figures. Some even hear bells and voices. These phenomena are most often observed in places of mass graves or where previously there were pagan shrines.

There are also many documented cases that occurred in the vicinity of Lake Onega with people and give rise to assumptions that there are temporary and energy faults.

The most sensational occurred in 1073 on the islandBolshoy Klimetsky with A.F. Pulkin, fleet captain, deviator. He grew up in these places, knows every trail here. Being on an island fishing, Pulkin went deep into the forest for firewood. The captain came ashore after 34 days. Pulkin could not explain where he was all this time, and why the rescue team could not find him.

Another strange story happened withby students. They arrived on the island to rest. But only their boat approached the coast, the guys felt an incredible energy impact in the form of vibration and an unpleasant buzz that caused a headache. All this ceased as soon as the students left the shore.

In 2009, an incredible incident occurred withgirl Anya (age 6 years). Her family arrived at Lake Onega to rest "savages." Dad broke the tent, made a fire. Mom took lunch. Anya played nearby, but suddenly disappeared. Parents searched all around. The father rushed into the forest, constantly loudly calling his daughter. Mom stayed near the tent. The girl was nowhere to be found. What was the amazement of the parents when, looking into the tent for the tenth time, they saw there a peaceful sleeping daughter. This story ended well, except for the fact that Anya had changed eye color, curly hair straightened, old moles disappeared and new ones appeared. Also, parents are embarrassed that a girl often speaks in a dream in a language unknown to anyone.

There are quite a few similar stories among the locals. Lake Onega, beautiful and majestic, holds many secrets and awaits their discoverers.